Vocabulary - By Chapter

Chapter One - Language and Culture

cause and effect - 原因及び効果

contextual - depending on the surrounding time, place, person, situation

hierarchy - a vertical arrangement by rank; ハイアラーキー; 階層 

hurtful - likely to cause pain or sadness

indispensable - necessary

inseparably - united, joined, unable to be separated

intermixed - mixed together

lukewarm - slightly warm

nuance - small detail of meaning or feeling

obvious - immediately easy to see or understand

omit, omitted - to leave out, exclude

potentially - possibly; possible in the future

rank - position in a hierarchy; how high or how low

rear-ended - being struck from behind in a traffic accident

relative - person in one's extended family; 親戚

seemingly - appearing or seeming to be; apparently

Chapter Two - Individuals and Groups

brag, bragging - boast, speak about oneself very highly

complicated - complex, not simple

(un)complimentary - negatively, insulting

excluded - omitted, left out, kept out

extension - for a longer time or length; 

imply/implies -  hint at, say indirectly

identity - one’s idea of oneself, how you think of who you yourself are

illustrate - explain by example or picture

individuality - what is different about a person 

proficiency - level of ability or skill

reciprocal - in exchange for, a two-way exchange

sum - total, all

vacuum - nothing; an absence of everything 

Chapter Three - Equality and Hierarchy

concept -  idea

contact information - name, address, telephone number, email address, etc.

demeanor - how one acts or behaves

emphasize - put stress on, express importance of 

head -  leader, top person

hierarchy -  a vertical arrangement by rank; ハイアラーキー; 階層 

holler - shout, yell

home (at home) - feel as comfortable as if one were in one’s own home

horizontally - side to side, 横に

ignore - pretend not to see, pay no attention to

intimidating - frightening, making one feel inferior or powerless

minefields - areas in which hiden bombs have been planted, 地雷原

mobility - aility to move around

monologue - one person speaking

oriented - arranged by, aimed toward, prioritized by

party / parties - person, people,  or group of people

pretend - act as if something were true, act out a fantasy

server - waiter or waitress

simultaneously - at the same time

staff - group of workers

state - a political unit, a country or nation

structural - having to do with how something is built or constructed

subset - group of items or people that are part of a larger group

superiority - being better than

underlying - beneath the surface, not obvious

vertically - up and down, 縦割り

Chapter Four - Formal vs. Informal

accordingly - therefore

expectations - what one expects, what one thinks will be

family name - last name, surname, 吊字

faux pas - (French) - a social error, an embarrassing mistake

first name - given name, 下の吊前 

first-name basis - as friends, knowing someone well enough to call them by his first name

formal - following rules; concerned with outward form or appearance

gasp - a sudden, fast, breathing in, usually because of surprise or fear

honorific - suffix or prefix added to indicate respect

informal - casual

last name - family name, surname, 吊字

law enforcement - police

mi casa es su casa - (Spanish) “My house is your house,” a traditional greeting of hospitality.

military - self-defense forces, 軍勢

surname - family name, last name, 吊字

titles - verbal indicators of rank or position

underscore - emphasize

uniforms - special work clothes, usually the same as other workers

Chapter Five - Harmony: (Wa)

acknowledge / acknowledgment - admit or confirm as true

based (on) - derived from original version or model 

contrastive - differently

controversial - causing many different opposing reactions and opinions

density (population density) - how dense, number of people in a given area

dramatic - big, surprising

elemental / elementally - basic

forbearance - ability to bear pain or hardship

forthright(ness) - honesty, frankness

frank - honest, direct

frontier - leading edge

heated - emotional

ignore -  pretend not to see, pay no attention to

justice - fairness, the correct reward or punishment

half-scale - 50% size 

intentionally – on purpose, not by accident, willfully

outback - the Australian countryside or wilderness

physical characteristics - what one looks like, one’s appearance

politics - 政治

pretend - act as if something were true, act out a fantasy

puppet - hand or string controlled doll

puppeteer - person who controls a puppet

quarters (close quarters) - place where one lives, usually temporary, as with a student or soldier

regret - to feel bad about one’s actions; 後悔

remorse - to feel bad about one’s actions; 悔悟

restitution - repayment for damages

spinach - ほうれんそう

stike/struck- hit

superseded - take precedence over, replace, make ineffective

superficial/superficially - only on the surface

theatrical - dramatic, showy

threaten/threatening - imply danger or harm for an act; make one fear violence or harm

Chapter Six - Content and Form

affront - insult

distress - worry, anxiety, trouble

diverge - separate from, go a different way

dramatically - severe, very obviously, easy to see

elaborate - explain more completely, give more information about

excessive - too much

exhausting - tiring

feverishly - working very quickly, in a great hurry

grammatically - regarding grammar

in the bargain - included, for free

insensitive - unaware or uncaring

ironically - surprisingly, contrary to expectation

lubricant - something that makes things go smoothly

mockery - make fun of, insult

pervasive - dominant, the general pattern

preserve - save, keep

sanity - a rational state of mind

sincerity - true feeling

social lubricant - something that helps people get along with each other comfortably

unique - one of a kind, very special

wack - crazy

Chapter Seven - Communication Patterns

aggressively - with energy and determination; using all one’s resources

aloof - snobbish, acting as if one is better than others

arrogant - over-confident; thinking of oneself as superior

at odds - in conflict with, in diagreement

chaotic - with no order

confounded - confused

constantly - without stopping

context - surrounding environment or situation

contradicting - against, disagreeing with, proving false

day to day - daily, everyday, ordinary

disagreement - fight, argument, けんか

doddering - old and senile, ぼけ

dominate - control, exert power over

enthusiastic - with much positive approval, with excitement

etiquette - manners

expertise - skill

exponentially - ever increasing, at a very rapid rate

forced - made one do something against one’s will

hypocritical - saying or doing one thing while believing or feeling another way; 

interrupt(ed) -  stop someone or something while it or they are doing something else

intonation - pitch variation in spoken language

invariably - without change, certainly, always

multiply - increase

paralyzed - unable to move

perspective - point of view

register - level of language politeness or formality

renowned - famous

revealing - informative, showing something, telling something

scripted - written and rehearsed

shortcoming - weak point

superficial/superficially - only on the surface

usage - in language, how people speak

variation - change in the pattern, a different form

Chapter Eight - School and Education

achievement - accomplishment, something you have done

analysis - methodical study of something

average - ordinary, the very middle of a number range

bachelor degree - usual four-year university degree

critical thinking - logical, unemotional thinking

deliberate - intentional, willfully

downplay(ed)-  make it seem smaller than it is, de-emphasize

establish(ing) - starting, beginning something

excel - do very well at something

exemplified - be a good example of something

expressive - with lots of expression or feeling

facilitator - someone who makes things easier

fulfilled - satisfied, content

grade point average (G.P.A) - numerical average of school grades

numerical - related to numbers

productive - efficient, producing something

self-realization - fulfilled, becoming a complete person

self-reliance - ability to get along without outside help

socializing - going out with people

value(s) – ideas or concepts that an individual or society find important (Ex: honesty, loyalty)

Chapter Nine - Work

account(s) - a business customer

advancement - moving up, usually in work, school, war, or competition

contractual - related to a contract

dedication - determination; focus on a task, thing, or person

examined - studied

extent - degree, how far

frustrated - unsatisfied, 隔靴掻痒

illegal - against the law

initiative - taking action on one’s own

intimate - close, personal

intimidating - fearful, frightening

marital status - if one is married, single, divorced, etc.

occupations - jobs

occur - happen

out of one’s depth - faced with too difficult a task; having too much or too difficult work

outcome - result

reflected - showed, exemplified, indicated

sexual orientation - whether one is heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, etc.

underlying - beneath the surface, underneath

unworthy - not worthy, not good enough for

work-style - way of working, the normal way of working in a given environment

Chapter Ten - Party Time

acquaintances - casual (not close) friends

contributes - offers, gives

eliminating - removing from consideration, taking away

illustrate - explain, usually with a picture or example

inconceivable - something one is unable to imagine

indicated - shown

in sync - synchronized, at the same time, on beat, in harmony

intimacy - personal closeness

itinerary - schedule, calendar

rarely - not usually, hardly ever

self-reliant - able to get along without outside help

sit-down dinner - formal dinner party

specify, specified - state clearly

unpredictable (predictable) - unable to say what will happen, and uncertain outcome

Chapter Eleven - Marriage and Family

artificial insemination - becoming pregnant by medical procedure and without sexual intercourse

baby boom - period after WWII with a high birth rate

baby-sitting - watching someone else’s children, usually for money, as I a part-time job

clone (cloning) -  biological copy of a living organism

daycare - center that provides care for children on a day to day basis

earning power - financial strength of a person or family; the salary one is capable of earning

extended family (vs. nuclear family) - in addition to parents and children, garnparents, uncles, aunts, etc.

financial independence - enough money to eliminate the need for work

new world - country one has emigrated to

phenomenon - occurrence, an observed event

predict - tell what will happen in the future

radical (radically) - severe, extreme

recognize - know, be aware of already knowing, understand, acccept

regardless - under any conditions

rural - not urban, in the country

stigma - a negative aura, a mark of shame

surrogate mother a woman who bears a baby for another woman or couple

Chapter Twelve - Space and Touching3Chapter Twelve - Space and Touching

back off - give space to, stop pressuring

brush / brushing - touch lightly as one passes by

bumping - collide with

butting in line / cutting in line - step in front of others who are waiting in line

claustrophobic - afraid of small enclosed spaces

contributing - giving or adding to

craft / crafted - made by hand

cutting in line / butting in line - step in front of others who are waiting in line

density - how much or how many in a given space

fascinating - very interesting

personal space - comfortable distance from one’s body for others

population density - how many people per area unit (square mile or square kilometer)

predictable - easily forecastable, with an easy to guess outcome or result

pressed - touched with pressure

provocation - with the intent of causing others to act or react

relatively - in relation to, compared with

square kilometers - area one kilometer by one kilometer, km²

telephoto - long lens for viewing faraway objects

toothpick - 楊子 

touchie-feelies - personal style marked by open expression of emotion, usually with lots of touching

wide-angle - camera lens that gives a wide view, often used in small spaces

Chapter Thirteen - National Identity

authoritarian - having a very strong central authority with lots of control

bigotry - prejudice

erosion - wearing away, deterioration

fascism - authoritarian, nationalistic, right-wing form of government

genocide - killing of a group or set of people, usually of one race, belief, or nationality

heritage - personal, cultural, or racial background and history

homogeneous - of one kind

immigrants - people who have come from another country

immigration - influx of people from other countries

impression - idea or feeling one gets

inevitably - certainly, for sure, with no other possible outcome or result

infinite - never ending

intermarry - marry across cultural, racial, national, or religious lines

intestines - one’s digestive system; guts; 内臓

intolerant - not accepting of others’ points of views, beliefs, or behavior

invaders - people who come uninvited and against one’s wishes, often forcefully

ironic - unexpectedly, often with a dark humorous twist

mistaken - by mistake, wrongly

myth - untrue story or fable that has become part of a culture, for example, Santa Claus

national identity - set of characteristics or beliefs thought to be shared by people of a country

nationalism - extreme form of patriotism

Native Americans -  original inhabitants of North America; American Indians; in Canada, “First Citizens”

patriotism - love of and devotion to one’s country

ridiculous - silly, absurd

right-wing - conservative, reactionary, fascist political tendency

slaves - individuals completely deprived of human rights who are “owned” by other individuals

spectrum - the complete range, usually in reference to light

tolerant - accepting

tragic - very sad, with a very sad outcome; disastrous

typically - usually, normally

unique - one of a kind, very special

Chapter Fourteen - Conflict, Resolution, and Responsibility

accountability - responsibility

amends (to make amends) - to repay for one’s wrongs or mistakes

apologize (apology) - 詫びる, 謝る

blindfold - cloth wrapped over the head covering one’s eyes

contract - legal agreement

contrition - regret, feeling that one has done wrong with a desire to right that wrong

depict - show, explain, or illustrate 

ensure (ensuring) - make certain

erosion - wearing away, deterioration

foresee - see the future

guilt - uncomfortable feeling for something wong one has done

just (unjust) - fair, fitting

legal responsibility - what is required by law

litigation - legal proceedings; the suing of one person by another

litigation-prone - quick to seek legal action to settle disagreements

objectively - rationally, without emotion or consideration for personal feelings

override - take precedence over, leave ineffectual

peek - a short look at

principle -  a major idea or belief; 原理

self-criticism - a careful evaluation at one’s own actions

served (is best served) - benefits from, is helped by

situational - changing by context, such has who, when, where, etc.

sleazy - dishonest or immoral

specify - state clearly and in detail

sue (suits) - seek legal action against someone who you feel has wronged you

take a back seat - make a lesser priority, treat as less important

unjust (just) - unfair

Chapter Fifteen - Culture Shock

accelerated - quickened, at an increased pace

ache - dull, constant pain

burden - heavy weight, workload, responsibility

dimension - size, aspect

discomfort - uncomfortable feeling

engaged (in) - doing, active in

frustration -  feeling unsatisfied, 隔靴掻痒

impulse - sudden feeling to do something without thinking about it in advance

invigorating - refreshing, stimulating

irritation - bothersome, annoying

novelties - new things or ideas

occupied - busy

re-defined - give a new meaning to

Twilight Zone - an old popular American TV show that focused on the paranormal (超常的)